Sprintf format codes examples

Characters: a A Decimals: Preceding with blanks: Preceding with zeros: Some different radices: 64 0x64 floats: 3.

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Nothing printed. The corresponding argument must be a pointer to a signed int. The number of characters written so far is stored in the pointed location. Left-justify within the given field width; Right justification is the default see width sub-specifier.

By default, only negative numbers are preceded with a - sign. Used with ox or X specifiers the value is preceeded with 00x or 0X respectively for values different than zero. Used with aAeEfFg or G it forces the written output to contain a decimal point even if no more digits follow.

sprintf format codes examples

By default, if no digits follow, no decimal point is written. Left-pads the number with zeroes 0 instead of spaces when padding is specified see width sub-specifier.

Minimum number of characters to be printed. If the value to be printed is shorter than this number, the result is padded with blank spaces. The value is not truncated even if the result is larger.

The width is not specified in the format string, but as an additional integer value argument preceding the argument that has to be formatted. For integer specifiers diouxX : precision specifies the minimum number of digits to be written. If the value to be written is shorter than this number, the result is padded with leading zeros. The value is not truncated even if the result is longer.

A precision of 0 means that no character is written for the value 0. For aAeEf and F specifiers: this is the number of digits to be printed after the decimal point by default, this is 6. For g and G specifiers: This is the maximum number of significant digits to be printed.

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For s : this is the maximum number of characters to be printed. By default all characters are printed until the ending null character is encountered.The various printf and wprintf functions take a format string and optional arguments and produce a formatted sequence of characters for output. The format string contains zero or more directiveswhich are either literal characters for output or encoded conversion specifications that describe how to format an argument in the output.

This article describes the syntax used to encode conversion specifications in the format string. Each field of the conversion specification is a character or a number that signifies a particular format option or conversion specifier. The required type field specifies the kind of conversion to be applied to an argument. The optional flagswidthand precision fields control additional format aspects such as leading spaces or zeroes, justification, and displayed precision.

The size field specifies the size of the argument consumed and converted. A basic conversion specification contains only the percent sign and a type character. If a percent sign is followed by a character that has no meaning as a format field, the invalid parameter handler is invoked. For more information, see Parameter Validation. For security and stability, ensure that conversion specification strings are not user-defined. If you are migrating older code you might see LNK in connection with these functions.

The type conversion specifier character specifies whether to interpret the corresponding argument as a character, a string, a pointer, an integer, or a floating-point number. The type character is the only required conversion specification field, and it appears after any optional fields.

The arguments that follow the format string are interpreted according to the corresponding type character and the optional size prefix. This behavior is Microsoft-specific. Integer types such as shortintlonglong longand their unsigned variants, are specified by using diouxand X.

Floating-point types such as floatdoubleand long doubleare specified by using aAeEfFgand G. By default, unless they're modified by a size prefix, integer arguments are coerced to int type, and floating-point arguments are coerced to double.

On bit systems, an int is a bit value; so, bit integers will be truncated when they're formatted for output unless a size prefix of ll or I64 is used.

Pointer types that are specified by p use the default pointer size for the platform. Microsoft-specific: The Z type character, and the behavior of the cCsand S type characters when they're used with the printf and wprintf functions, are Microsoft extensions.

The ISO C standard uses c and s consistently for narrow characters and strings, and C and S for wide characters and strings, in all formatting functions. Starting in Visual Studioif the argument that corresponds to a floating-point conversion specifier aAeEfFgG is infinite, indefinite, or NaN, the formatted output conforms to the C99 standard.

This table lists the formatted output:. Any of these values may be prefixed by a sign. If a floating-point type conversion specifier character is a capital letter, then the output is also formatted in capital letters. The scanf functions can also parse these strings, so these values can make a round trip through printf and scanf functions.

Any of these may have been prefixed by a sign, and may have been formatted differently depending on field width and precision, sometimes with unusual effects. J because the INF would be "rounded" to two digits of precision. In all exponential formats, the minimum number of digits of exponent to display is two, using three only if necessary.

The first optional field in a conversion specification contains flag directiveszero or more flag characters that specify output justification and control output of signs, blanks, leading zeros, decimal points, and octal and hexadecimal prefixes. More than one flag directive may appear in a conversion specification, and the flag characters can appear in any order.

In a conversion specification, the optional width specification field appears after any flags characters. The width argument is a non-negative decimal integer that controls the minimum number of characters that are output. If the number of characters in the output value is less than the specified width, blanks are added to the left or the right of the values—depending on whether the left-alignment flag - is specified—until the minimum width is reached.

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If width is prefixed by 0, leading zeros are added to integer or floating-point conversions until the minimum width is reached, except when conversion is to an infinity or NaN. The width specification never causes a value to be truncated. If the number of characters in the output value is greater than the specified width, or if width isn't provided, all characters of the value are output, subject to the precision specification.

The width argument must precede the value that's being formatted in the argument list, as shown in this example:.This article explains how to apply the sprintf function in R.

Format specification syntax: printf and wprintf functions

The sprintf function returns character objects containing a formatted combination of input values. The first example explains how to modify the number of decimal places with sprintf. We can now use sprintf to format the decimal places. The default number of decimal places is printed as follows i. We can control the number of decimal places by adding a point and a number between the percentage sign and the f. For instance, we can print ten digits after the decimal point….

Note: The output of sprintf is a character string and not a numeric value as the input was. We can tell sprintf to print all digits before the decimal point, but no digits after the decimal point….

It is also possible to combine numeric with non-numeric inputs. The following R code returns a plus sign in front of our example number…. The sprintf R function is also used to control exponential notation in R. The following syntax returns our number as scientific notation with a lower case e…. We can also control the amount of decimal zeros that we want to print to the RStudio console. The following R code prints our example number without any decimal zeros…. So far, we have only used a single numeric value i.

However, the sprintf command allows as many input values as we want. Furthermore, we can print these input values within more complex character strings. Have a look at the following sprintf example:. The first specification i. Of cause we could use sprintf in even more complex settings. Have a look at the sprintf examples of the R help documentation, if you are interested in more complex examples:. The sprintf function is obviously only one of many R functions for the Handling of character strings.

A similar function to sprintf is the paste function. If you want to learn more about paste, you could have a look at the following YouTube video of Jonatan Lindh:.

Please accept YouTube cookies to play this video. By accepting you will be accessing content from YouTube, a service provided by an external third party. YouTube privacy policy. Accept YouTube Content. Also have a look at the other tutorials of this website. I have already published several tutorials on the handling of character strings in R:.

This tutorial showed you how to use the sprintf function in R. In case you have any further questions, let me know in the comments below. Your email address will not be published.I originally created this cheat sheet for my own purposes, and then thought I would share it here.

This means that your printf knowledge is reusable, which is a good thing. And here are three different Java printf examples, using different string formatting methods that are available to you in the Java programming language:. As you can see in that last String. Several different options are shown, including a minimum width specification, left-justified, zero-filled, and also a plus sign for positive numbers.

The following character sequences have a special meaning when used as printf format specifiers:. As you can see from that last example, because the backslash character itself is treated specially, you have to print two backslash characters in a row to get one backslash character to appear in your output.

By Alvin Alexander. Last updated: November 21, Java String formatting with the String. How to use multiple regex patterns with replaceAll Java String class. Java error message: Cannot make a static reference to the non-static field or method. The notes that became Functional Programming, Simplified. The secret passion of Steve Jobs Japanese art. Looking into writing a Scala 3 testing framework.How to begin Get the book.

sprintf format codes examples

Practice problems Quizzes. By default, C provides a great deal of power for formatting output. The standard display function, printf, takes a "format string" that allows you to specify lots of information about how a program is formatted.

Let's look at the anatomy of a format string followed by some short example programs to show the different settings in action. I won't include every single possible option--instead, my goal is to make it easy to understand the mini-language that you can use for creating format strings and teach you how to use the common formatting you're most likely to need.

When you make a call to printf, the basic idea is that you are going to provide a string of characters that has some literal characters and some elements that are to be replaced. For example, a string like:.

C library function - sprintf()

Will be printed literally as it appears. While it is sometimes enough to literally write into your code exactly what you want to print, you usually want to do something fancier--either introducing special characters using escape sequences or introducing variable values using format specifiers. There are some characters that you cannot directly enter into a string. These are characters like a newline, which must be represented using some special syntax.

These are called escape sequences and look like this:. Here, I've entered the newlines between each letter, a, b and c. This is useful if you want to display a character that you can't easily type on your keyboard, such as accented letters. If you want to introduce some variance into the output, you do so by indicating that external data is needed:. In order to actually get that number, we need to provide that value to printf:.

C++ sprintf()

Understanding this formatting is best done by working backward, starting with the conversion specifier and working outward. So let's begin at the end! The conversion specifier is the part of the format specifier that determines the basic formatting of the value that is to be printed. If you want to print an integer in octal or hexadecimal you'd use o for octal, or x for hexadecimal.

If you want capital letters A instead of a when printing out decimal 10 then you can use X. Okay, that wasn't too bad was it? But that chart is kind of complicated.

Since the percent sign is used to define format specifiers, there's a special format specifier that means "print the percent sign":. Now, let's walk through each of the different components of a format specifier. The length modifier is perhaps oddly-named; it does not modify the length of the output. Instead, it's what you use to specify the length of the input. Say you have:.In both cases these provide simple functionality and fixed format compared to more sophisticated and flexible template engines or parsers, but are sufficient for many purposes.

Mismatches between the format specifiers and type of the data can cause crashes and other vulnerabilities. The format string itself is very often a string literalwhich allows static analysis of the function call. However, it can also be the value of a variable, which allows for dynamic formatting but also a security vulnerability known as an uncontrolled format string exploit. Early programming languages such as Fortran used special statements with completely different syntax from other calculations to build formatting descriptions.

In this example, the format is specified on lineand the WRITE command refers to it by line number:. C's printf has its origins in BCPL 's writef function Probably the first copying of the syntax outside the C language was the Unix printf shell command, which first appeared in Version 4as part of the port to C. Formatting takes place via placeholders within the format string.

For example, if a program wanted to print out a person's age, it could present the output by prefixing it with "Your age is ", and using the signed decimal specifier character d to denote that we want the integer for the age to be shown immediately after that message, we may use the format string:.

The Parameter field can be omitted or can be:. This feature mainly sees its use in localization, where the order of occurrence of parameters vary due to the language-dependent convention.

The Width field specifies a minimum number of characters to output, and is typically used to pad fixed-width fields in tabulated output, where the fields would otherwise be smaller, although it does not cause truncation of oversized fields. Though not part of the width field, a leading zero is interpreted as the zero-padding flag mentioned above, and a negative value is treated as the positive value in conjunction with the left-alignment - flag also mentioned above. The Precision field usually specifies a maximum limit on the output, depending on the particular formatting type.

For floating point numeric types, it specifies the number of digits to the right of the decimal point that the output should be rounded.

sprintf format codes examples

For the string type, it limits the number of characters that should be output, after which the string is truncated. For floating point types, this is ignored.

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Additionally, several platform-specific length options came to exist prior to widespread use of the ISO C99 extensions:. ISO C99 includes the inttypes. These must be outside double-quotes, e. There are a few implementations of printf -like functions that allow extensions to the escape-character -based mini-languagethus allowing the programmer to have a specific formatting function for non-builtin types.

However, it is rarely used due to the fact that it conflicts with static format string checking. Another is Vstr custom formatterswhich allows adding multi-character format names. If the syntax of a conversion specification is invalid, behavior is undefined, and can cause program termination.

If there are too few function arguments provided to supply values for all the conversion specifications in the template string, or if the arguments are not of the correct types, the results are also undefined. Excess arguments are ignored. In a number of cases, the undefined behavior has led to " Format string attack " security vulnerabilities.

Some compilers, like the GNU Compiler Collectionwill statically check the format strings of printf-like functions and warn about problems when using the flags -Wall or -Wformat.In this C programming language tutorial we take another look at the printf function. We will look at how to use format specifiers to print formatted output onto the screen.

The topics covered are; a little printf background, format specifiers and conversions, formatting of different types and format conversions of strings. The printf function is not part of the C language, because there is no input or output defined in C language itself. The printf function is just a useful function from the standard library of functions that are accessible by C programs.

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The behavior of printf is defined in the ANSI standard. Default argument promotions happen in variadic functions. Variadic functions are functions e. When a variadic function is called, after lvalue-to-rvalue, array-to-pointer, and function-to-pointer conversions, each argument that is a part of the variable argument list undergoes additional conversions known as default argument promotions :. If you actually needed to pass, for example, a char instead of an int, the function would have to convert it back.

As you can see in the first printf statement we print a decimal. In the third printf statement we say almost the same as the previous one.

Print the output with a width of three digits, but fill the space with 0. In the fourth printf statement we want to print a float. In this printf statement we want to print three position before the decimal point called width and two positions behind the decimal point called precision.

In this case it represents a newline character. After printing something to the screen you usually want to print something on the next line.

Commonly used escape sequences are:. As you can see we print the Fahrenheit temperature with a width of 3 positions. The Celsius temperature is printed with a width of 6 positions and a precision of 3 positions after the decimal point.

Adding Interactive Visual Syntax to Textual Code

Until now we only used integers and floats, but there are more types you can use. Take a look at the following example:. By now you have seen most of the format conversion possible, but there is one type that is a little different and that are string format conversions. As you can see, the string format conversion reacts very different from number format conversions. A little warning! The printf function uses its first argument to determine how many arguments will follow and of what types they are.

Just make some examples of your own, they are easy to make. This is the only way to learn and see how the format conversions reacts. I found a very good tutorial here.


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